August 2002

Aluminum Bronzes - Part II

Metallurgy of Copper & Copper Alloys

By Vin Callcut

Aluminum Bronzes - Part I

Cast Aluminum Bronze | Wrought Aluminum Bronze | Fabrication and Welding of Aluminum Bronze | The Machining of Aluminum Bronzes | Available Publications | References

Cast Aluminum Bronze

Aluminum bronze castings are produced by the recognized techniques of sand, shell, permanent mold (low-pressure die), ceramic, investment, centrifugal and continuous casting. The size of castings ranges from tiny investment cast components to very large propellers weighing 70 tons. Standard compositions of cast aluminum bronzes are shown in Table 12.

One of the very attractive characteristics of aluminum bronzes is that, due to their short cooling range, they solidify compactly, as do pure metals. This means that, provided defects are avoided, the metal is inherently sound, more so than alloys such as gunmetal (tin bronze, UNS C90500) which may be porous unless cooled very rapidly.

The alloy's short freezing range means that adequate feeding is required as the metal solidifies. It is also essential to prevent the aluminum oxide dross on top of the liquid metal from becoming entrapped in the castings during pouring. Avoiding internal defects therefore requires a certain degree of care, although foundries with the required expertise routinely produce castings of very high integrity.

Because aluminum bronze is often selected for critical applications, it is important that casting be well designed so as to achieve best results. Consultation with an experienced founder is essential at a relatively early stage of design development. Publications are available that are helpful in the initial design work and give a good basis for consultation between the designer and the founder.

Many duplex alloy castings may be heat treated to improve the microstructure of the alloy, giving better corrosion resistance and higher strength for only a slight reduction in ductility. The treatment recommended is to soak at 1220°F (660°C) and cool in still air. The time at temperature depends on casting size and section thickness but is on the order of two hours. This treatment is used only for the most critical of applications.

Wrought Aluminum Bronze

A wide variety of wrought products are made in aluminum bronze alloys, including forgings, rod, bar, section (profile), flat, sheet, strip and plate, filler rod and wire. An indication of this variety is given in Table 8. Material can be chosen from the compositions that are given in Table 14 but manufacturers or distributors will advise the most suitable alloy for selection.

Table 8. Availability of Wrought Aluminum Bronzes
Product FormEnglishMetric
Plate, sheet, strip, up to 4000 kg 0.02 to 5 in 0.5 to 127 mm
Bar, rod, section 0.3-8 in diameter 7 to 200 mm diameter
Wire Size and weight per spool by arrangement
Tube and hollow bar Up to 4 in diameter, 0.4 in wall thickness. Hollow bar up to 20 in diameter Up to 108 mm diameter, 9.5 mm wall thickness. Hollow bar up to 500 mm diameter
Welded tube By arrangement By arrangement
Forgings Size and maximum weight by arrangement Size and maximum weight by arrangement

Billets from which wrought products are made continuously to ensure freedom from entrapped oxide defects, which would carry through to the final product. These billets are then hot worked by conventional methods such as extrusion, rolling or forging. Rolling, extrusion and rotary forging produce sections that are to final or near final dimensions and reduce the need for costly machining. This provides very useful design flexibility.

Forgings are produced either freehand in simple shapes and to relatively wide tolerances, or in closed dies to close tolerances if the quantity required justifies the initial cost of the die. Hot pressing, stamping and other methods are used to produce flanged shafts, nuts and bolts.

Fabrication and Welding of Aluminum Bronze

The ductility and weldability of aluminum bronzes lends it to weld fabrication of preformed sections to produce items such as pressure vessels and pipes. One attractive feature of the aluminum bronzes is that it is possible to incorporate castings as well as forgings in a fabricated assembly. The single-phase alloys are easier to cold work than the complex alloys and are therefore less expensive to roll into shape. The complex alloys are, however, stronger and are less sensitive to the stresses resulting from the heating and cooling cycles caused by welding.

Gas shielded arc welding (GTAW, GMAW) is the most popular method for welding aluminum bronze. Depending on strength requirements, filler metals will either conform to AWS 5.7 grades ER CuAl-A1 (moderate strength, used for weld overlay and metallizing to repair bearing and corrosion-resistant surfaces, and not intended for joining); ER CuAl-A2 (intermediate strength, for joining aluminum bronze fabrications, joining a wide variety of dissimilar metals, casting repair, general maintenance and galvanized sheet fabrication), or ER CuAl-A3, (high strength, mainly used to weld aluminum bronze castings of similar composition and for build-up and repair of bearing surfaces).

To avoid possible effects of mixed microstructures in the weld bead and heat affected zone, post weld heat treatment may be recommended for complex alloys. There will, for example, be an improvement in corrosion resistance after soaking weld fabrications at 1220°F (660°C) and cooling in still air.

The Machining of Aluminum Bronzes 

Aluminum bronze should be considered as a bronze with mechanical properties similar to those of a high-grade steel. While the alloys are not free cutting (Type I chip behavior), they do not present inordinate machining difficulties. It will be appreciated that to ensure the most economical production, materials of this caliber require correct machining methods. Although many machine shops have developed their own standard practice to suit their particular requirements, the following notes will serve as a general guide for machining aluminum bronzes.

Most duplex aluminum bronzes (including UNS C61800, C62300, C62400, C62500, C63000, C63020 and C63200) exhibit Type II chip-forming behavior. Type II chips are short and curled or serrated, and metals that produce them can be processed on automatic screw machines and high-speed machining centers in many instances. Deep drilling and tapping may require greater care.

The alpha aluminum bronzes (C61000, C61300, C61400) generate Type III chips, which are long and stringy or tangled, and somewhat "gummy". Metals of this type are generally not recommended for automatic screw machine production.

Definite values for maximum feeds, speeds and depth-of-cut cannot be stated since these are influenced by several factors; the equipment being used, the operator, and his experience in handling the material. On the other hand, the various recommendations given below may be taken as representing a reliable average, offering maximum production with reasonable tool life and efficiency. Little distortion normally occurs on machining, but in cases where dimensions are critical it may be useful to carry out a stress relief heat treatment of one hour at 660oF (350°C) prior to final machining.


Figure 1. Cutting Tool Geometry for Machining Aluminum Bronzes Figure 1. Cutting Tool Geometry for Machining Aluminum Bronzes

The use of tungsten carbide tipped tools is considered desirable. It is most important that the work should be held rigidly and that tools should be properly supported, with minimum overhang from the tool post. To obtain the best results, equipment must be kept in good condition, as excessively worn headstock bearings and slides will give rise to tool chatter and rapid tool breakdown. The first roughing cut on a casting should be deep enough to penetrate the skin, and a steady flow of soluble oil is essential for both roughing and finishing cuts. The work must be kept cool during precision machining; if it is allowed to heat up, difficulty will be experienced in maintaining accuracy.

Suitable designs for tungsten carbide roughing and finishing tools are illustrated in Figure 1, and speeds and feeds recommended for use with these tools are given in Table 9. High efficiency with carbide tipped tools is attained by using a light feed, a moderately heavy depth of cut and the highest cutting speed consistent with satisfactory tool life.

Table 9. Turning Speeds and Feed Rates for Aluminum Bronzes (Type II Chips)
 Surface SpeedRoughing FeedFinishing Feed
HSS Tooling 150-300 sfm 2-8 mil/rev 2-3 mil/rev
46-92 m/min 51-203 µm/rev 51-76 µm/rev
Carbide Tooling 400-600 sfm 2-8 mil/rev 2-3 mil/rev
122-183 m/min 51-203 µm/rev 51-76 µm/rev


Figure 2. Drill Geometry for Aluminum BronzesFigure 2. Drill Geometry for Aluminum Bronzes

Since aluminum bronze is hard, close grained and (except for some alpha alloys) free from the "stringy" characteristics of copper, a fine quality drilled finish is obtainable. The best results are achieved with high-speed steel (HSS) drills ground with negative rake at an included angle of 100° to 110°. Straight-fluted drills will give a fine surface finish. Binding in the hole can be overcome by grinding the drill very slightly off center, thereby providing additional clearance. Where countersinking is required, a counterboring tool will give the best results. If a counterboring tool is not available, it may be preferable to carry out countersinking before drilling. A coolant must be used, especially with the harder grades, and overheating must be avoided. Medium speeds and moderate feeds give the best results.

Table 10. Drilling Speeds And Feeds For Aluminum Bronzes
MaterialClearance AngleDrill
Point Angle
Cutting EdgeSpeedFeed
Type II Alloys 12°-15° 118° Flatten to 0° Rake 75-250 sfm 2-30 mil/rev
23-76 m/min 0.05-0.76 m/rev


Normal reaming practice is not suitable for aluminum bronze, although excellent results can be obtained. A simple "D" bit made up with a tungsten carbide insert will maintain the closest limits and produce a highly finished bore. Approximately 0.005 in (0.12mm) of metal should be removed. Adjustable-type reamers with carbide inserts can also be used, and it will be found that chatter is eliminated if a reamer having an odd number of inserts is chosen. Fluted reamers are less prone to chatter, an important consideration with tough short-chip (Type II) alloys. A rake angle (hook) of 5° is used for both Types II and III alloys. It is important that cutting tools be lapped to a fine finish. Avoid undue heating and use coolant. A left-hand spiral type is to be preferred for hand reaming.

Figure 3. Reaming Geometries for Aluminum BronzesFigure 3. Reaming Geometries for Aluminum Bronzes
Table 11. Recommended Reaming Feeds for Aluminum Bronzes
Hole DiameterFeedDepth of Cut
<0.125 in 0.010 in/rev 0.003-0.004 in
<3.2 mm 0.25 mm/rev 0.08-0.10 mm
0.125-0.375 in 0.010-0.016 in/rev 0.004-0.007 in
3.2-9.5 mm 0.25-0.41 mm/rev 0.08-0.18 mm
>0.375 in 0.016 in/rev 0.007-0.015 in
>9.5 mm 0.41-0.91 mm/rev 0.18-0.38 mm


Figure 4. Recommended Tap Geometry for Aluminum BronzesFigure 4. Recommended Tap Geometry for Aluminum Bronzes

For hand tapping where the quantity of work or nature of the part does not permit use of a tapping machine, regular commercial two- and three-flute high-speed steel taps should prove satisfactory. The rake should be correct for the metal being cut and the chamfer should be relatively short, so that work-hardening or excess stresses do not result from too many threads being cut at the same time.

High-speed steel taps with ground threads are used in machine tapping. In instances where the threads tend to tear as the tap is being backed out, a rake angle should be ground on both sides of the flute.

Hard, multiphase (Type II) aluminum bronzes require intermediate rake angles (12° to 17°). For aluminum bronzes that produce tough, stringy chips, spiral pointed taps with two or three flutes are preferred for tapping through holes or blind holes drilled sufficiently deep for chip clearance. These taps produce long, curling chips, which are forced ahead of the tap. Larger (17° to 25°) rake angles are required for these Type III alloys. Spiral fluted bottoming taps can be used for machine (and hand) tapping of blind holes. The speeds indicated in Table 12 are based on the use of taps to produce fine to moderate pitch threads. Appreciably lower speeds should be used for coarse pitch threads, and speeds should be reduced by about 50% if carbon steel taps are used.

Table 12. Threading and Tapping Data for Aluminum Bronzes
MaterialTap Rake AngleDie ChamferLineal Threading or
Tapping Speed
Type II Alloys 5°-8° 10°-15°two or three threads 50-90 sfm
15-27 m/min

If the work is allowed to overheat, a re-tapping operation may be necessary. The use of a tapping compound having a high tallow content will prevent binding in the case of softer grades, and will prevent cracking of the work in the harder grades.


Milling data for aluminum bronzes is given in Table 13 and are depicted graphically in Figure 5. Hard (Type II) aluminum bronzes generally require smaller rake angles from those used with ductile Type III alloys. Small-diameter cutters should be ground with radial teeth (0° rake) for these alloys. Recommended milling speeds can be as high as 200 sfm (61 m/min). Recommended feeds range from 0.016 to 0.022 in/rev (0.4 to 0.56 mm/rev) per tooth for spiral cutters and from 0.010 to 0.022 in/rev (0.25 to 0.56 mm/rev) per tooth for end mills. Speeds and feeds will depend upon the job and machining conditions, but the work must not be "forced", or tearing and chipping may result.

Figure 5. Recommended Milling Cutter Geometries for Aluminum BronzesFigure 5. Recommended Milling Cutter Geometries for Aluminum Bronzes
Table 13. Milling Data for Aluminum Bronzes
Clearance AngleLandSurface Speed
Type II Alloys 0°-10° 5°-15° 1.015-0.030 in 150-200 sfm
0.38-0.76 mm 46-61 m/min

For long-chip Type III alloys, milling cutters with tooth spacing no finer than four to eight teeth per inch will facilitate chip removal. Combined cutters can also be used, but teeth should be interlocked to prevent chips from collecting between cutter elements. Generous rake angles and adequate clearance should be provided on face-, side- and end-milling cutters to prevent burnishing of the workpiece. Up to 15° clearance can be incorporated on tooth sides in side and face cutters and on tooth ends in end cutters. A radial undercut will prevent tooth edges from dragging along the workpiece. Cutting edges should be finely polished and/or coated to reduce loading.

Undue heating must be avoided and a coolant should be used. Good results can be achieved by employing standard steel practice. Soluble-oil coolants are satisfactory for these alloys. Mineral oils containing about 5% lard oil can also be used.


All grades of aluminum bronze can readily be given an excellent ground finish, and even the softer grades will not clog the grinding wheel. Again, a coolant must be used and overheating must be avoided. A bauxite type wheel gives satisfactory results and the grades recommended for particular operations are 30 grit for roughing; 46 grit for general purposes; and 60 grit for fine finish work. Since aluminum bronze is non-magnetic, it cannot be finished using a magnetic chuck.

Further information on the machining of aluminum bronzes and other copper alloys is available in the CDA publication, Copper Rod Alloys for Machined Products and in CDA-UK Technical Note TN44 Machining Copper and Its Alloys

Scrap Values

The scrap value of aluminum bronze chips (swarf) is relatively high provided that it is kept clean and segregated from other alloys, particularly steels. As with all copper alloys, high scrap value helps offset machining costs and should be considered when costing component manufacture.

Table 14. Aluminum Bronzes for Cold Working
Wrought UNS Alloys with less than 8% aluminum
(Incl. Co)
AlMnSiZnSnOther Named
Wrought UNS Alloys with less than 8% aluminum
C60800(1) Rem. .10 .10 - 5.0-6.5 - - - - .02-.35As
C61000(1) Rem. .02 .50 - 6.0-8.5 - .10 .20 - -
C61300(2) Rem. .01 2.0-3.0 .15 6.0-7.5 .20 .10 .10(3) .20-.50 .015P
C61400(1) Rem. .01 1.5-3.5 - 6.0-8.0 1.0 - .20 - .015P
C61500(1) Rem. .015 - 1.8-
2.2 (4)
7.7-8.3 - - - - -
C61550(1) Rem. .05 .20 1.5-
2.5 (4)
5.5-6.5 1.0 - - .05 .8Zn
C61800(1) Rem. .02 .50-1.5 - 8.5-11.0 - .10 .02 - -
C61900(1) Rem. .02 3.0-4.5 - 8.5-10.0 - - .8 .6 -
European Alloys
CuAl5As Rem - - - 4.0-6.5 - - - - 0.1-0.4As
CuAl8Fe3 Rem - 1.5-3.5 - 6.5-8.5 - - - - -
(1)Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.5% min.
(2) Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.8% min.
(3) When the product is for subsequent welding applications and is so specified by the purchaser, Cr, Cd, Zr and Zn shall each be .05% max.
Table 15. Aluminum Bronzes for Casting
Alloy No.CuPbFeNi (incl. Co)AlMnMgSiZnSn
C95200 86.0 min (1) - 2.5-4.0 - 8.5-9.5 - - - - -
C95210 86.0 min (1) .05 2.5-4.0 1.0 8.5-9.5 1.0 .05 .25 .50 .10
C95220 Rem (2) - 2.5-4.0 2.5 9.5-10.5 .50 - - - -
C95300 86.0
- .8-1.5 - 9.0-11.0 - - - - -
C95900 Rem. (2) - 3.0-5.0 .50 12.0-13.5 1.5 - - - -
CuAl9-C 88.0-92.0 1.2 1.0 8.0-10.5 0.50
CuAl10Fe2-C 83.0-89.5 1.5-3.5 1.5 8.5-10.5 1.0
(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.0% min.
Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
Table 16. High Strength Aluminum Bronzes—Wrought
Alloy No.Cu(1)
PbFeNi (Incl Co)AlMnMgSiZnSn
C62200(1) Rem. .02 3.0-4.2 - 11.0-12.0 - - .10 .02 -
C62300(1) Rem. - 2.0-4.0 1.0 8.5-10.0 .50 - .25 - .6
C62400(1) Rem. - 2.0-4.5 - 10.0-11.5 .30 - .25 - .20
C62500(1) Rem. - 3.5-5.5 - 12.5-13.5 2.0 - - - -
C62580(1) Rem. .02 3.0-5.0 - 12.0-13.0 - - .04 .02 -
C62581(1) Rem. .02 3.0-5.0 - 13.0-14.0 - - .04 .02 -
CuAl10Fe1 Rem - 0.5-1.5 - 9.0-10.0 - - - - -
CuAl10Fe3Mn2 Rem - 2.0-4.0 - 9.0-11.0 1.5-3.5 - - - -
(1) Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.5% min.
Table 17. High Strength Nickel-Aluminum Bronzes—Wrought
Alloy No.Cu(1) (Incl.
PbFeNi (Incl Co)AlMnSiZnSnOther
C63000(1) Rem. - 2.0-4.0 4.0-5.5 9.0-11.0 1.5 .25 .30 .20 -
C63010 78.0 min.(2) - 2.0-3.5 4.5-5.5 9.7-10.9 1.5 - .30 .20 -
C63020(1) 74.5min. .03 4.0-5.5 4.2-6.0 10.0-11.0 1.5 - .30 .25 0.20Co, 0.05Cr
C63200(1) Rem. .02 3.5-
4.3 (3)
4.0-4.8 8.7-9.5 1.2-2.0 .10 - - -
C63280 Rem. .02 3.0-5.0 4.0-5.5 8.5-9.5 .6-3.5 - - - -
C63380 Rem. .02 2.0-4.0 1.5-3.0 7.0-8.5 11.0-14.0 .10 .15 - -
CuAl9Ni3Fe2 Rem - 1.0-3.0 2.0-4.0 8.0-9.5 - - - - -
CuAl10Ni5Fe4 Rem - 3.0-5.0 4.0-6.0 8.5-11.0 - - - - -
CuAl11Fe6Ni6 Rem. - 5.0-7.0 5.0-7.0 10.5-12.5 - - - - -
(1)Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.5% min.
Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.8% min.
Fe content shall not exceed Ni content.
Table 18. High Strength Nickel-Aluminum Bronzes—Cast
Alloy No.CuPbFeNi
(incl. Co)
C95400 83.0 min (1) - 3.0-5.0 1.5 10.0-11.5 .50 - - - - -
C95410 83.0 min (1) - 3.0-5.0 1.5-2.5 10.0-11.5 .50 - - - - -
C95420 83.5 min (1) - 3.0-4.3 .50 10.5-12.0 .50 - - - - -
C95500 78.0 min(1) - 3.0-5.0 3.0-5.5 10.0-11.5 3.5 - - - - -
C95510 78.0 min (2) - 2.0-3.5 4.5-5.5 9.7-10.9 1.5 - - .30 .20 -
C95520 74.5 min (1) .03 4.0-5.5 4.2-6.0 10.5-11.5 1.5 - .15 .30 .25 .20Co .05Cr
C95800 79.0 min (1) .03 3.5-4.5 (3) 4.0-5.0 (3) 8.5-9.5 .8-1.5 - .10 - - -
C95810 79.0 min (1) .10 3.5-4.5 (3) 4.0-5.0 (3) 8.5-9.5 .8-1.5 .05 .10 .50 - -
C95820 77.5 min (4) .02 4.0-5.0 4.5-5.8 9.0-10.0 1.5 - .10 .20 .20 -
CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C - 80.0-86.0 1.0-3.0 1.5-4.0 8.5-10.5 2.0 - - - - -
CuAl10Ni5Fe5-C - 76.0-83.0 4.0-5.5 4.0-6.0 8.5-10.5 3.0 - - - - -
CuAl11Fe6Ni6-C - 72.0-78.0 4.0-7.0 4.0-7.5 10.0-12.0 2.5 - - - - -
(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
Cu + sum of named elements, 99.8% min.
Fe content shall not exceed Ni content.
Cu + sum of named elements, 99.2% min.
Table 19. Aluminum Bronzes With Silicon for Low Magnetic Permeability —Wrought
Alloy No.Cu(1)
PbFeNi (Incl. Co)AlMnSiZnSnOther
C63400 Rem. .05 .15 .15 2.6-3.2 - .25-.45 .50 .20 .15As
C63600 Rem. .05 .15 .15 3.0-4.0 - .7-1.3 .50 .20 .15As
C63800 Rem. .05 .20 .20 2.5-3.1 .10 1.5-2.1 .8 - .25-.55Co
C63800 Rem. .05 .20 .20 2.5-3.1 .10 1.5-2.1 .8 - .25-.55Co
C64210 Rem. .05 .30 .25 6.3-7.0 .10 1.5-2.0 .50 .20 .15As
CuAl6Si2Fe Rem - 0.5-0.7 - 6.0-6.4 - 2.0-2.4 - - -
CuAl7Si2 Rem - 1.0-3.0 - 7.3-7.6 - 1.5-2.2 - - -
(1)Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
(2)Not including Co.
Table 20. Aluminum Bronzes with silicon for low magnetic permeability - Cast
UNS Alloy
CuPbFeNi (incl. Co)AlMnSiZnSnOther
C95600 88.0 min (1) - - .25 6.0-8.0 - 1.8-3.2 - - -
(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.0% min.
Table 21. Manganese Aluminum Bronzes, Cast
Alloy No.CuPbFeNi (incl. Co)AlMnSiZnSnOther
C95700 71.0min. (2) - 2.0-4.0 1.5-3.0 7.0-8.5 11.0-14.0 .10 - - -
C95710 71.0min. (2) .05 2.0-4.0 1.5-3.0 7.0-8.5 11.0-14.0 .15 .50 1.0 .05P
C95720 73.0min.(2) .03 1.5-3.5 3.0-6.0 6.0-8.0 12.0-15.0 .10 .10 .10 .20Cr
CuMn10Fe3Ni3-C 68.0-77.0 2.0-4.0 - 7.0-9.0 8.0-15.0 - - - -
(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.0% min.
Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.

Available Publications on Aluminum Bronzes (including help available on websites)

H. J Meigh, 'Cast and Wrought Aluminum Bronzes - Properties, Processes and Structure', Institute of Materials, London, 2000, 404pp.

P J Macken and A A Smith, 'The Aluminum Bronzes - Properties and Production Processes' CDA Publication No 31, second edition 1966, Copper Development Association, St Albans, 263pp.


Aluminum Bronze Alloys - Corrosion Resistance Guide, Publication No 80, 26 pages of invaluable data on recommended service environments.

Copper & Copper Alloy Corrosion Resistance Database

Corrosion Resistance of Copper and Copper Alloys (Large Table), CDA No 106


Properties of Wrought and Cast Copper Alloys Databese
Property Data - Wrought Alloys

Property Data - Cast Alloys

Collation of Data Comparing Properties of Aluminum Bronze with Cast Stainless Steels and Ni-Resist in Offshore Sea Water Environments

Welding Aluminum Bronzes, Publication No 85, 8 pages of useful guidance.

Suitability of Joining Techniques

Fabrication Practices for Copper & Copper Alloys Database


Microstructures of Copper and Copper Alloys

Designing Aluminum Bronze Castings, a reprint of data from an article by H. J. Meigh

Wear Resistance

Resistance to Wear of Aluminium Bronzes, H J Meigh


Typical Uses of Copper & Copper Alloys

Search the Copper Data Center Database


(This list was compiled by H. J. Meigh as part of his research for his book on Aluminum Bronzes published by The Institute of Materials.)

Current CDA Publications can be obtained from Copper Development Association, Inc. (CDA)

CDA-UK Publications can be obtained from Copper Development Association UK , 5 Grovelands Business Centre, Boundary Way, Hemel Hempstead HP2 7TE.

Publications by the International Copper Association (ICA) or its predecessor, the International Copper Research Association (INCRA), may be obtainable from ICA, 260 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, or from the European Copper Institute (ECI), Avenue de Tervurenlaan 168, b 10, Brussels 1150 Belgium.

P. Aaltonen, K. Klemetti and H. Hanninen - "Effect of tempering on corrosion and mechanical properties of cast aluminium bronzes" - Scand. J. Metall, 1985, 14,233-242.

Z. Ahmad and P. Dvami - "The effect of alloying additions on the optimisation of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of alpha and beta aluminium bronzes" - Paper from 6th International Congress on Metallic Corrosion, Books, Sydney, 1975, 28 pages.

S. Alam, R. I. Marshall and S. Sasaki - "Metallurgical and Tribological Investigations of Aluminum Bronze bushes made by a novel centrifugal casting technique" - Tribol. Int., 1996, 29, No 6, 487-492.

S. Alan and R. I. Marshall. - "Testing performance of various bronze bushes" - J. Appl. Phys. 1992. 25, 1340-1344.

W. O. Alexander - "Copper-rich Nickel-Aluminum-Copper Alloys II. The Constitution of the Copper-Nickel rich alloys" - J Inst. Met., 1938, 63, 163-83

A. Al-Hashem and H. M. Shalaby - "The role of Microstructure on the Cavitation Corrosion Behaviour of cast Nickel-Aluminum Bronze" - Natl. Assn. of Corr. Eng. Report No 283, March 1995.

A. Al-Hashem, P. G. Caceres, W. T. Riad and H. M. Shalaby - "Cavitation corrosion behaviour of cast nickel aluminum bronze in sea water" - Corrosion (US), 1995, 51, (5), 331-342 Anonymous - "The making and casting of aluminum bronze" - Brass World, 1911, 7, 100-102

Anonymous - "New wear resistance data for aluminum bronze" - Mater. Eng., Apr. 1972, 62 (4), P 50.

Anonymous - "Aluminum Bronze Alloys for Industry" - CDA (UK) Publication No 83,8pp, March 1986

Anonymous - "Welding of Aluminium Bronzes" - CDA (UK) Publication No 85, 8pp, 1988

Anonymous - "Cost-effective Manufacturing: Copper Alloy Bearings - CDA (UK) Publication No TN45, 28pp, December 1992

D. Arnaud - "Thermal analysis of copper alloys" - Trans AFS, 1970, 78 25-32

D. Arnaud - "Étude des caractéristiques mécaniques et de la limite d'endurance des cupro-aluminium" (Study of the mechanical characteristics and of the endurance limit of cupro-aluminum alloys) - Fonderie, Oct. 1976, 13, No 5, 681-693.

D. Arnaud - "The elevated temperature properties of cast copper alloys" - INCRA Report., Apr. 1972, Project No 182, pp 36.

N. C. Ashton - "The production technology of aluminium bronze plate, bar, fasteners and welding" - Papers presented at a symposium on "Copper and copper alloy semi products", Bombay, Indian Copper Infom. Ctr., Calcutta, Apr. 1980.

D. J. Astley and J. C Rowlands - "Modelling of bi-metallic corrosion in sea water systems" - Brit. Corr. J., 1985, 20, No 2, 90-94

B. G Ateya, E A Ashour and S. M Sayed - "Stress corrosion behaviour of aluminium bronze in saline water" - Corrosion, January 1994.

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Aluminum Bronzes - Part I

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