Aluminum Bronzes - Part II
Metallurgy of Copper & Copper AlloysAluminum Bronzes - Part I
Cast Aluminum Bronze
Aluminum bronze castings are produced by the recognized techniques of sand, shell, permanent mold (low-pressure die), ceramic, investment, centrifugal and continuous casting. The size of castings ranges from tiny investment cast components to very large propellers weighing 70 tons. Standard compositions of cast aluminum bronzes are shown in Table 12.
One of the very attractive characteristics of aluminum bronzes is that, due to their short cooling range, they solidify compactly, as do pure metals. This means that, provided defects are avoided, the metal is inherently sound, more so than alloys such as gunmetal (tin bronze, UNS C90500) which may be porous unless cooled very rapidly.
The alloy's short freezing range means that adequate feeding is required as the metal solidifies. It is also essential to prevent the aluminum oxide dross on top of the liquid metal from becoming entrapped in the castings during pouring. Avoiding internal defects therefore requires a certain degree of care, although foundries with the required expertise routinely produce castings of very high integrity.
Because aluminum bronze is often selected for critical applications, it is important that casting be well designed so as to achieve best results. Consultation with an experienced founder is essential at a relatively early stage of design development. Publications are available that are helpful in the initial design work and give a good basis for consultation between the designer and the founder.
Many duplex alloy castings may be heat treated to improve the microstructure of the alloy, giving better corrosion resistance and higher strength for only a slight reduction in ductility. The treatment recommended is to soak at 1220°F (660°C) and cool in still air. The time at temperature depends on casting size and section thickness but is on the order of two hours. This treatment is used only for the most critical of applications.
A wide variety of wrought products are made in aluminum bronze alloys, including forgings, rod, bar, section (profile), flat, sheet, strip and plate, filler rod and wire. An indication of this variety is given in Table 8. Material can be chosen from the compositions that are given in Table 14 but manufacturers or distributors will advise the most suitable alloy for selection.
|Plate, sheet, strip, up to 4000 kg||0.02 to 5 in||0.5 to 127 mm|
|Bar, rod, section||0.3-8 in diameter||7 to 200 mm diameter|
|Wire||Size and weight per spool by arrangement|
|Tube and hollow bar||Up to 4 in diameter, 0.4 in wall thickness. Hollow bar up to 20 in diameter||Up to 108 mm diameter, 9.5 mm wall thickness. Hollow bar up to 500 mm diameter|
|Welded tube||By arrangement||By arrangement|
|Forgings||Size and maximum weight by arrangement||Size and maximum weight by arrangement|
Billets from which wrought products are made continuously to ensure freedom from entrapped oxide defects, which would carry through to the final product. These billets are then hot worked by conventional methods such as extrusion, rolling or forging. Rolling, extrusion and rotary forging produce sections that are to final or near final dimensions and reduce the need for costly machining. This provides very useful design flexibility.
Forgings are produced either freehand in simple shapes and to relatively wide tolerances, or in closed dies to close tolerances if the quantity required justifies the initial cost of the die. Hot pressing, stamping and other methods are used to produce flanged shafts, nuts and bolts.
The ductility and weldability of aluminum bronzes lends it to weld fabrication of preformed sections to produce items such as pressure vessels and pipes. One attractive feature of the aluminum bronzes is that it is possible to incorporate castings as well as forgings in a fabricated assembly. The single-phase alloys are easier to cold work than the complex alloys and are therefore less expensive to roll into shape. The complex alloys are, however, stronger and are less sensitive to the stresses resulting from the heating and cooling cycles caused by welding.
Gas shielded arc welding (GTAW, GMAW) is the most popular method for welding aluminum bronze. Depending on strength requirements, filler metals will either conform to AWS 5.7 grades ER CuAl-A1 (moderate strength, used for weld overlay and metallizing to repair bearing and corrosion-resistant surfaces, and not intended for joining); ER CuAl-A2 (intermediate strength, for joining aluminum bronze fabrications, joining a wide variety of dissimilar metals, casting repair, general maintenance and galvanized sheet fabrication), or ER CuAl-A3, (high strength, mainly used to weld aluminum bronze castings of similar composition and for build-up and repair of bearing surfaces).
To avoid possible effects of mixed microstructures in the weld bead and heat affected zone, post weld heat treatment may be recommended for complex alloys. There will, for example, be an improvement in corrosion resistance after soaking weld fabrications at 1220°F (660°C) and cooling in still air.
Aluminum bronze should be considered as a bronze with mechanical properties similar to those of a high-grade steel. While the alloys are not free cutting (Type I chip behavior), they do not present inordinate machining difficulties. It will be appreciated that to ensure the most economical production, materials of this caliber require correct machining methods. Although many machine shops have developed their own standard practice to suit their particular requirements, the following notes will serve as a general guide for machining aluminum bronzes.
Most duplex aluminum bronzes (including UNS C61800, C62300, C62400, C62500, C63000, C63020 and C63200) exhibit Type II chip-forming behavior. Type II chips are short and curled or serrated, and metals that produce them can be processed on automatic screw machines and high-speed machining centers in many instances. Deep drilling and tapping may require greater care.
The alpha aluminum bronzes (C61000, C61300, C61400) generate Type III chips, which are long and stringy or tangled, and somewhat "gummy". Metals of this type are generally not recommended for automatic screw machine production.
Definite values for maximum feeds, speeds and depth-of-cut cannot be stated since these are influenced by several factors; the equipment being used, the operator, and his experience in handling the material. On the other hand, the various recommendations given below may be taken as representing a reliable average, offering maximum production with reasonable tool life and efficiency. Little distortion normally occurs on machining, but in cases where dimensions are critical it may be useful to carry out a stress relief heat treatment of one hour at 660oF (350°C) prior to final machining.
The use of tungsten carbide tipped tools is considered desirable. It is most important that the work should be held rigidly and that tools should be properly supported, with minimum overhang from the tool post. To obtain the best results, equipment must be kept in good condition, as excessively worn headstock bearings and slides will give rise to tool chatter and rapid tool breakdown. The first roughing cut on a casting should be deep enough to penetrate the skin, and a steady flow of soluble oil is essential for both roughing and finishing cuts. The work must be kept cool during precision machining; if it is allowed to heat up, difficulty will be experienced in maintaining accuracy.
Suitable designs for tungsten carbide roughing and finishing tools are illustrated in Figure 1, and speeds and feeds recommended for use with these tools are given in Table 9. High efficiency with carbide tipped tools is attained by using a light feed, a moderately heavy depth of cut and the highest cutting speed consistent with satisfactory tool life.
|Surface Speed||Roughing Feed||Finishing Feed|
|HSS Tooling||150-300 sfm||2-8 mil/rev||2-3 mil/rev|
|46-92 m/min||51-203 µm/rev||51-76 µm/rev|
|Carbide Tooling||400-600 sfm||2-8 mil/rev||2-3 mil/rev|
|122-183 m/min||51-203 µm/rev||51-76 µm/rev|
Since aluminum bronze is hard, close grained and (except for some alpha alloys) free from the "stringy" characteristics of copper, a fine quality drilled finish is obtainable. The best results are achieved with high-speed steel (HSS) drills ground with negative rake at an included angle of 100° to 110°. Straight-fluted drills will give a fine surface finish. Binding in the hole can be overcome by grinding the drill very slightly off center, thereby providing additional clearance. Where countersinking is required, a counterboring tool will give the best results. If a counterboring tool is not available, it may be preferable to carry out countersinking before drilling. A coolant must be used, especially with the harder grades, and overheating must be avoided. Medium speeds and moderate feeds give the best results.
|Type II Alloys||12°-15°||118°||Flatten to 0° Rake||75-250 sfm||2-30 mil/rev|
|23-76 m/min||0.05-0.76 m/rev|
Normal reaming practice is not suitable for aluminum bronze, although excellent results can be obtained. A simple "D" bit made up with a tungsten carbide insert will maintain the closest limits and produce a highly finished bore. Approximately 0.005 in (0.12mm) of metal should be removed. Adjustable-type reamers with carbide inserts can also be used, and it will be found that chatter is eliminated if a reamer having an odd number of inserts is chosen. Fluted reamers are less prone to chatter, an important consideration with tough short-chip (Type II) alloys. A rake angle (hook) of 5° is used for both Types II and III alloys. It is important that cutting tools be lapped to a fine finish. Avoid undue heating and use coolant. A left-hand spiral type is to be preferred for hand reaming.
|Hole Diameter||Feed||Depth of Cut|
|<0.125 in||0.010 in/rev||0.003-0.004 in|
|<3.2 mm||0.25 mm/rev||0.08-0.10 mm|
|0.125-0.375 in||0.010-0.016 in/rev||0.004-0.007 in|
|3.2-9.5 mm||0.25-0.41 mm/rev||0.08-0.18 mm|
|>0.375 in||0.016 in/rev||0.007-0.015 in|
|>9.5 mm||0.41-0.91 mm/rev||0.18-0.38 mm|
For hand tapping where the quantity of work or nature of the part does not permit use of a tapping machine, regular commercial two- and three-flute high-speed steel taps should prove satisfactory. The rake should be correct for the metal being cut and the chamfer should be relatively short, so that work-hardening or excess stresses do not result from too many threads being cut at the same time.
High-speed steel taps with ground threads are used in machine tapping. In instances where the threads tend to tear as the tap is being backed out, a rake angle should be ground on both sides of the flute.
Hard, multiphase (Type II) aluminum bronzes require intermediate rake angles (12° to 17°). For aluminum bronzes that produce tough, stringy chips, spiral pointed taps with two or three flutes are preferred for tapping through holes or blind holes drilled sufficiently deep for chip clearance. These taps produce long, curling chips, which are forced ahead of the tap. Larger (17° to 25°) rake angles are required for these Type III alloys. Spiral fluted bottoming taps can be used for machine (and hand) tapping of blind holes. The speeds indicated in Table 12 are based on the use of taps to produce fine to moderate pitch threads. Appreciably lower speeds should be used for coarse pitch threads, and speeds should be reduced by about 50% if carbon steel taps are used.
|Material||Tap Rake Angle||Die Chamfer||Lineal Threading or|
|Type II Alloys||5°-8°||10°-15°two or three threads||50-90 sfm|
If the work is allowed to overheat, a re-tapping operation may be necessary. The use of a tapping compound having a high tallow content will prevent binding in the case of softer grades, and will prevent cracking of the work in the harder grades.
Milling data for aluminum bronzes is given in Table 13 and are depicted graphically in Figure 5. Hard (Type II) aluminum bronzes generally require smaller rake angles from those used with ductile Type III alloys. Small-diameter cutters should be ground with radial teeth (0° rake) for these alloys. Recommended milling speeds can be as high as 200 sfm (61 m/min). Recommended feeds range from 0.016 to 0.022 in/rev (0.4 to 0.56 mm/rev) per tooth for spiral cutters and from 0.010 to 0.022 in/rev (0.25 to 0.56 mm/rev) per tooth for end mills. Speeds and feeds will depend upon the job and machining conditions, but the work must not be "forced", or tearing and chipping may result.
|Clearance Angle||Land||Surface Speed|
|Type II Alloys||0°-10°||5°-15°||1.015-0.030 in||150-200 sfm|
|0.38-0.76 mm||46-61 m/min|
For long-chip Type III alloys, milling cutters with tooth spacing no finer than four to eight teeth per inch will facilitate chip removal. Combined cutters can also be used, but teeth should be interlocked to prevent chips from collecting between cutter elements. Generous rake angles and adequate clearance should be provided on face-, side- and end-milling cutters to prevent burnishing of the workpiece. Up to 15° clearance can be incorporated on tooth sides in side and face cutters and on tooth ends in end cutters. A radial undercut will prevent tooth edges from dragging along the workpiece. Cutting edges should be finely polished and/or coated to reduce loading.
Undue heating must be avoided and a coolant should be used. Good results can be achieved by employing standard steel practice. Soluble-oil coolants are satisfactory for these alloys. Mineral oils containing about 5% lard oil can also be used.
All grades of aluminum bronze can readily be given an excellent ground finish, and even the softer grades will not clog the grinding wheel. Again, a coolant must be used and overheating must be avoided. A bauxite type wheel gives satisfactory results and the grades recommended for particular operations are 30 grit for roughing; 46 grit for general purposes; and 60 grit for fine finish work. Since aluminum bronze is non-magnetic, it cannot be finished using a magnetic chuck.
Further information on the machining of aluminum bronzes and other copper alloys is available in the CDA publication, Copper Rod Alloys for Machined Products and in CDA-UK Technical Note TN44 Machining Copper and Its Alloys
The scrap value of aluminum bronze chips (swarf) is relatively high provided that it is kept clean and segregated from other alloys, particularly steels. As with all copper alloys, high scrap value helps offset machining costs and should be considered when costing component manufacture.
|Wrought UNS Alloys with less than 8% aluminum|
|(1)Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.5% min.
(2) Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.8% min.
(3) When the product is for subsequent welding applications and is so specified by the purchaser, Cr, Cd, Zr and Zn shall each be .05% max.
|Alloy No.||Cu||Pb||Fe||Ni (incl. Co)||Al||Mn||Mg||Si||Zn||Sn|
|C95200||86.0 min (1)||-||2.5-4.0||-||8.5-9.5||-||-||-||-||-|
|C95210||86.0 min (1)||.05||2.5-4.0||1.0||8.5-9.5||1.0||.05||.25||.50||.10|
|(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.0% min.
(2) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
|Pb||Fe||Ni (Incl Co)||Al||Mn||Mg||Si||Zn||Sn|
|(1) Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.5% min.|
|Alloy No.||Cu(1) (Incl.|
|Pb||Fe||Ni (Incl Co)||Al||Mn||Si||Zn||Sn||Other|
|(1)Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.5% min.
(2)Cu + Sum of Named Elements, 99.8% min.
(3)Fe content shall not exceed Ni content.
|C95400||83.0 min (1)||-||3.0-5.0||1.5||10.0-11.5||.50||-||-||-||-||-|
|C95410||83.0 min (1)||-||3.0-5.0||1.5-2.5||10.0-11.5||.50||-||-||-||-||-|
|C95420||83.5 min (1)||-||3.0-4.3||.50||10.5-12.0||.50||-||-||-||-||-|
|C95510||78.0 min (2)||-||2.0-3.5||4.5-5.5||9.7-10.9||1.5||-||-||.30||.20||-|
|C95520||74.5 min (1)||.03||4.0-5.5||4.2-6.0||10.5-11.5||1.5||-||.15||.30||.25||.20Co .05Cr|
|C95800||79.0 min (1)||.03||3.5-4.5 (3)||4.0-5.0 (3)||8.5-9.5||.8-1.5||-||.10||-||-||-|
|C95810||79.0 min (1)||.10||3.5-4.5 (3)||4.0-5.0 (3)||8.5-9.5||.8-1.5||.05||.10||.50||-||-|
|C95820||77.5 min (4)||.02||4.0-5.0||4.5-5.8||9.0-10.0||1.5||-||.10||.20||.20||-|
|(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
(2) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.8% min.
(3) Fe content shall not exceed Ni content.
(4) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.2% min.
|Pb||Fe||Ni (Incl. Co)||Al||Mn||Si||Zn||Sn||Other|
|(1)Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
(2)Not including Co.
|Cu||Pb||Fe||Ni (incl. Co)||Al||Mn||Si||Zn||Sn||Other|
|C95600||88.0 min (1)||-||-||.25||6.0-8.0||-||1.8-3.2||-||-||-|
|(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.0% min.|
|Alloy No.||Cu||Pb||Fe||Ni (incl. Co)||Al||Mn||Si||Zn||Sn||Other|
|(1) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.0% min.
(2) Cu + sum of named elements, 99.5% min.
H. J Meigh, 'Cast and Wrought Aluminum Bronzes - Properties, Processes and Structure', Institute of Materials, London, 2000, 404pp.
P J Macken and A A Smith, 'The Aluminum Bronzes - Properties and Production Processes' CDA Publication No 31, second edition 1966, Copper Development Association, St Albans, 263pp.
Aluminum Bronze Alloys - Corrosion Resistance Guide, Publication No 80, 26 pages of invaluable data on recommended service environments.
Copper & Copper Alloy Corrosion Resistance Database
Corrosion Resistance of Copper and Copper Alloys (Large Table), CDA No 106
Properties of Wrought and Cast Copper Alloys Databese
Property Data - Wrought Alloys
Property Data - Cast Alloys
Collation of Data Comparing Properties of Aluminum Bronze with Cast Stainless Steels and Ni-Resist in Offshore Sea Water Environments
Welding Aluminum Bronzes, Publication No 85, 8 pages of useful guidance.
Suitability of Joining Techniques
Resistance to Wear of Aluminium Bronzes, H J Meigh
Search the Copper Data Center Database
(This list was compiled by H. J. Meigh as part of his research for his book on Aluminum Bronzes published by The Institute of Materials.)
Current CDA Publications can be obtained from Copper Development Association, Inc. (CDA)
CDA-UK Publications can be obtained from Copper Development Association UK , 5 Grovelands Business Centre, Boundary Way, Hemel Hempstead HP2 7TE.
Publications by the International Copper Association (ICA) or its predecessor, the International Copper Research Association (INCRA), may be obtainable from ICA, 260 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, or from the European Copper Institute (ECI), Avenue de Tervurenlaan 168, b 10, Brussels 1150 Belgium.
P. Aaltonen, K. Klemetti and H. Hanninen - "Effect of tempering on corrosion and mechanical properties of cast aluminium bronzes" - Scand. J. Metall, 1985, 14,233-242.
Z. Ahmad and P. Dvami - "The effect of alloying additions on the optimisation of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of alpha and beta aluminium bronzes" - Paper from 6th International Congress on Metallic Corrosion, Books, Sydney, 1975, 28 pages.
S. Alam, R. I. Marshall and S. Sasaki - "Metallurgical and Tribological Investigations of Aluminum Bronze bushes made by a novel centrifugal casting technique" - Tribol. Int., 1996, 29, No 6, 487-492.
S. Alan and R. I. Marshall. - "Testing performance of various bronze bushes" - J. Appl. Phys. 1992. 25, 1340-1344.
W. O. Alexander - "Copper-rich Nickel-Aluminum-Copper Alloys II. The Constitution of the Copper-Nickel rich alloys" - J Inst. Met., 1938, 63, 163-83
A. Al-Hashem and H. M. Shalaby - "The role of Microstructure on the Cavitation Corrosion Behaviour of cast Nickel-Aluminum Bronze" - Natl. Assn. of Corr. Eng. Report No 283, March 1995.
A. Al-Hashem, P. G. Caceres, W. T. Riad and H. M. Shalaby - "Cavitation corrosion behaviour of cast nickel aluminum bronze in sea water" - Corrosion (US), 1995, 51, (5), 331-342 Anonymous - "The making and casting of aluminum bronze" - Brass World, 1911, 7, 100-102
Anonymous - "New wear resistance data for aluminum bronze" - Mater. Eng., Apr. 1972, 62 (4), P 50.
Anonymous - "Aluminum Bronze Alloys for Industry" - CDA (UK) Publication No 83,8pp, March 1986
Anonymous - "Welding of Aluminium Bronzes" - CDA (UK) Publication No 85, 8pp, 1988
Anonymous - "Cost-effective Manufacturing: Copper Alloy Bearings - CDA (UK) Publication No TN45, 28pp, December 1992
D. Arnaud - "Thermal analysis of copper alloys" - Trans AFS, 1970, 78 25-32
D. Arnaud - "Étude des caractéristiques mécaniques et de la limite d'endurance des cupro-aluminium" (Study of the mechanical characteristics and of the endurance limit of cupro-aluminum alloys) - Fonderie, Oct. 1976, 13, No 5, 681-693.
D. Arnaud - "The elevated temperature properties of cast copper alloys" - INCRA Report., Apr. 1972, Project No 182, pp 36.
N. C. Ashton - "The production technology of aluminium bronze plate, bar, fasteners and welding" - Papers presented at a symposium on "Copper and copper alloy semi products", Bombay, Indian Copper Infom. Ctr., Calcutta, Apr. 1980.
D. J. Astley and J. C Rowlands - "Modelling of bi-metallic corrosion in sea water systems" - Brit. Corr. J., 1985, 20, No 2, 90-94
B. G Ateya, E A Ashour and S. M Sayed - "Stress corrosion behaviour of aluminium bronze in saline water" - Corrosion, January 1994.
J. P. Ault - "Erosion Corrosion of Nickel-Aluminum Bronze in Flowing Seawater" - Natl. Assn. of Corr. Eng. Report No 281, March 1995.
P. De Baets - "Comparison of the wear behaviour of six bearing materials for a heavily loaded sliding system in Sea water" - Wear, Jan 1995, 180, No 1-2, 61-72.
J. T. Barnby, E. A. Culpan, A. E Morris, L. J Hussey, M S Atherton and D. M Rae - "The fracture resistance of nickel aluminum bronze tubes" - Int. J. Fract., Oct. 1977, 13, No 5, 681-693.
J. A. Beavers, G H. Y Koch and W. E Berry - "Corrosion of metals in marine environments - a state-of-the-art report" - Reports, July 1986, Report No MCIC-86-50, pp 8-1/8-79.
E. Belkin - "Cast Ni-containing Aluminum Bronze Properties and Microstructure" - Modern Castings, 1961, 40, August, 87-97.
N. V. Belyaev - "Fatigue strength of welded joints in complexly alloyed aluminum bronzes" - Weld. Int'l., 1989, 3, No 5, 386-388.
R. M. Bentley and D. J. Duquette - "The effect of environment and applied current and potential on the corrosion fatigue properties of an as-cast duplex aluminum bronze alloy." - INCR Report, Project No 241, Nov. 1979, pp 112.
R. E. Berry - "Contribution to discussion on the control of quality on the production of wrought non-ferrous metals and alloys" - J. Inst. Met. 1954-55, 83, 357-58.
A. W. Blackwood and N. S. Stoloff - "The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking in Cu-Al alloys" - ASM Trans. Q., 1969, 62 (3), 677-689.
A. J Bradley et al - JISI, 1940, 141, 99
J. N. Bradley - "Recent developments in copper-base alloys for naval marine applications" - Int. Met. Rev. 1972, 17, 81-99
P. Brezina - Giessereiforschung, 1970, (2) 81
P. Brezina - Sulzer Tech. Rev., 1972, Research No 1, 29-36.
P. Brezina - Proc. Conf. "Aluminum Bronzes - a state of the art", Leoben, Austria, April 1977.
P. Brezina - "Heat treatment of complex aluminum bronzes" - Internat. Met. Reviews, 1982, Vol 27, No 2.
S. C. Britton - "The Corrosion of Copper and Some Copper Alloys in Atmospheres Highly Polluted with Coal Smoke" - J. Inst. Metals, 1941, 67, 119-33.
L. Brown "Joining of Copper and Copper Alloys", CDA (UK) Publication No 98, 44pp, September 1994
C. V. Brouillette - "Corrosion Rates in Port Hueneme Harbour." - Corrosion, August 1958, 14,, 352t-6t.
H. F. Brown - "The Application of Corrosion-Resisting Materials to Railroad Electrical Construction" Assn. Amer. Railroads, 1950.
C. L. Bulow - "Corrosion and Biofouling of Copper-Base Alloys in Sea Water" - Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1945, 87, 319-52.
B. Bhushan and B. K. Gupta - "Handbook of Tribology: Materials, Coatings and Surface Treatments" - McGraw-Hilll, New York, 1991.
H. S. Campbell - "Aluminium Bronze Alloys Corrosion Resistance Guide", CDA (UK) Publication No 80, 27pp, July 1981
R. J. T. Caney - "Corrosion Resistant Aluminium Bronze" - Australasian Engineer, June 1954, 46, 54-69.
H. C. H. Carpenter and C. A. Edwards of the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, England - "Eighth Report to the Alloys Research Committee: on the properties of some alloys of aluminum and copper" - The Institution of Mechanical Engineers" - Jan 1907.
P. Collins and D. J. Duquette - "Corrosion fatigue behavior of a duplex aluminum bronze alloy". Corrosion (US), Apr. 1978, 34, No 4, 119-124.
J. F. G. Conde and J. C. Rowlands - "Copper base alloys in ship and marine applications" - Papers presented at Copper '83, The Metal Soc. London, Nov 1983, No 34, pp 34.1-34.13.
M. Cook, W. P. Fentiman and E. Davis - "Observations on the Structure and properties of Wrought Copper-Aluminum-Nickel-Iron Alloys" - J. Inst. Met., 1951-52, 80, 419-29.
D. J. H. Corderoy and N .Ono - "The work hardening of copper-aluminum alloys" - Proceedings of the 6th Int'l. Conf., Melbourne, Aug 1982, Books, pp 941-946, Pergamon Press, NY 1983.
W. M. Corse and G. F. Comstock - "Some copper-aluminum-iron alloys" - Transaction Am. Inst. Metals, P119, 1916.
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A. Couture, M. Sahoo, B. Dogan and J. D. Boyd - "Effect of heat treatment on the properties of Mn-Ni-Al Bronze Alloys" - Trans. AFS, 1987, 95, 537-552.
R. A. Cresswell - "Development of the Tungsten-Arc Cutting Process" - Brit. Welding J., August 1958, 5, 346-55
W. I. J. Crofts, D. W. Townsend and A. P. Bates - "Soundness and Reproducibility of Properties of Sand-Cast Complex Aluminium Bronzes" - Brit. Foundryman, 1964, 57, 89-103; disc. - Brit. Foundryman, 1964, 502-3
W. I. J. Crofts - "The influence of aluminum, iron, nickel and manganese on the tensile properties of complex aluminium bronzes" - Austr. Inst. Metals 1965, 10, No 2, 49
J. Cronin and J Warburton, - "Amplitude-Controlled Transitions in Fretting: the Comparative Behaviour of Six Materials" - Tribol. Inst. 21, 309-315, Dec. 1988, ISSN: 0301-679X
E. A. Culpan and J. T. Barnby - "The metallography of fracture in cast nickel aluminum bronze" - J. Mater. Sci., Feb 1978, 13, No 2, 323-328.
E. A. Culpan and G. Rose - "Corrosion behaviour of cast nickel-aluminium bronze in sea water" - Br. Corros. J. 14, (3), 160-166, 1979, ISSN: 0007-0599
E. A Culpan and A. G. Foley - "The detection of selective phase corrosion in cast nickel aluminum bronze by acoustic emission techniques" - J. Mater. Sci., Apr. 1982, 17, No 4, 953-964.
C. P. Dillon and Associates - "Copper Alloys in Alkaline Environments" - USA Mater Perform., Feb 1996, 35, No 2., p 97.
K. Drefahl, M. Kleinau and W. Steinkamp - "Creep behaviour of copper and copper alloys as design criteria in pressure vessel manufacture" - J. Test Eval. , Sept. 1985, 13, No 5, 329-343.
B. Dubois, G. Ocampo, G. Demiraj and G. Bouquet - "Mechanical properties during the tempering of martensitic copper-aluminium alloys" - Proceedings of the 6th Int'l. Conf., Melbourne, Aug 1982, Books, pp 281-287, Pergamon Press, NY 1983.
J. O. Edwards and D. A. Whittaker - "Aluminum Bronzes containing Manganese, Nickel and Iron: Chemical Composition, Effect on Structure and Properties" - Trans. A.F.S., 1961, 69, 862-72.
E. A. Feest and I. A. Cook - "Pre-Primary Phase Formation in Solidification of Nickel--Aluminum Bronze". (Retroactive Coverage) - Met. Technol. 10, (4), 121-124, Apr.1983, ISSN: 0307-1693
R. J. Ferrara and T. E. Caton - "Review of de-alloying of cast aluminum bronze and nickel aluminum bronze alloys" - Mater. Performance, Feb 1982, 21, No 2, 30-34.
R. Francis and C. R. Maselkowski - "The effects of chlorine on materials for sea water cooling systems" - BNF Metals Technology Centre. Wantage. Oxfordshire, May 1985.
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Also in this Issue:
- Aluminum Bronzes - Part II
- Aluminum Bronzes - Part I