Greek Armour, Ships and Miscellanea

Armour, weapons, tools, vases, cauldrons (sometimes with bronze tripods), beautiful ornamental mirrors of many kinds, razors, bracelets and brooches in copper or bronze were common features of the ancient Greek world. The splendid sculptures in stone, such as the Pediment of the Parthenon, were not only painted but also had detailed parts, like the horses' reins and harness made of bronze and cunningly inserted. The temples themselves were of stone, usually with stone or wooden roofs; but copper was also used for temple roofs as far back as Hesiod's day (about 650 B.C.).

When at the height of their power, the Athenians had by far the largest navy in the world. Their warships or triremes, each of which was propelled by 150 oarsmen, were long and relatively narrow. Like all ships of this design their strength depended on strong wooden beams, known as walings, which ran fore and aft and terminated at the fore end in a battering-ram sheathed in bronze. For many centuries Mediterranean ships also carried a large swan-neck at the stern; this too was sheathed in bronze. Swords, spears, arrows and other weapons were all made of bronze, which became the established material for this purpose all over the world. In the later chariots, which were normally lightly constructed, it was the practice of some nations to attach a bronze scythe or sickle to the axle.

The Greeks mainly employed a silver coinage. It was beautifully minted, and bronze dies were used exclusively.