Fittings for copper water tube used in plumbing and heating are made to the following standards:
- Cast Copper Alloy Threaded Fittings (ASME B16.15)
- Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings (ASME B16.18)
- Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings (ASME B16.22)
- Wrought Copper LW Solder Joint Pressure Fittings (MSS SP104)
- Welded Fabricated Copper Solder Joint Pressure Fittings (MSS SP109)
- Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV (ASME B16.23)
- Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (ASME B16.24)
- Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes (ASME B16.26)
- Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper-Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV (ASME B16.29)
- Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Braze-Joint Pressure Fittings (ASME B16.50)
- Removable and Non-Removable Push-Fit Fittings (ASSE 1061)
Examples of solder joint end dimensions are shown in Figure 14.5.
Cast alloy pressure fittings are available in all standard tube sizes and in a limited variety of types to cover needs for plumbing and mechanical systems. They can be either soldered or brazed, although brazing cast fittings requires care. Wrought copper pressure fittings are available over a wide range of sizes and types. These, too, can be joined by either soldering or brazing; wrought fittings are preferred where brazing is the joining method. Otherwise, the choice between cast and wrought fittings is largely a matter of the user's preference and availability.
Flared-tube fittings provide metal-to-metal contact similar to ground joint unions; both can be easily taken apart and reassembled. They are especially useful where residual water cannot be removed from the tube and soldering is difficult. Flared joints may be required where a fire hazard exists and the use of a torch to make soldered or brazed joints is not allowed.
Soldering under wet conditions can be very difficult; flared, press-, and push-connect joints are preferred under such circumstances.