Copper-nickels have established properties which show high resistance to seawater corrosion and biofouling. This includes resistance to chlorides in terms of pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, even in hotter climates. Good thermal conductivities and ductility down to cryogenic temperatures are also important features in their range of applications. The higher nickel alloys and those with specific alloying additions allow higher flow rates and strength.
Important properties of copper-nickel alloys are summarized in the links below:
- Corrosion Resistance: Introduction; Surface Film; General/Localized/Pitting and Crevice Corrosion; Stress Corrosion Cracking; Velocity Effects; Sand Erosion; Galvanic Properties; Ammonia; Sulfides; Seawater Treatments; Corrosion in Condenser and Heat Exchange Systems; Useful References.
- Biofouling: Introduction; Factors; Development; Resistance; Reasoning; Microfouling; Tubing, Cladding and Offshore Structures; Removal; Effects on Corrosion; Effects on Plant Operations; Useful References.
- Mechanical: Typical Mechanical Properties; Minimum Mechanical Properties; Useful References.
- Physical: Introduction; Table of Physical Properties; Useful References.
- Cryogenic: Data is given for 90-10 and 70-30 Cu-Ni; Useful References.
- Antimicrobial: Public Health Benefits; Links to Applications; Antimicrobialcopper.com and other Useful References.
- Environmental: Leaching; Touch Contact; Useful References.
Because of their unique useful properties, copper-nickel alloys are specified for marine engineering applications, such as in shipbuilding and repair, desalination plants, offshore oil and gas structures and power generation. Within these sectors, copper-nickels are used and designed for seawater system components, including condensers and heat exchangers and splash zone sheathing, and have also been used for the more novel application of boat hulls. In the non-marine environment, copper-nickel alloys are suitable for coinage, cryogenic applications, and antimicrobial touch surface products in marine and non-marine environments.
- 90/10 and 70/30 Alloys Technical Data, Publication TN 31, , CDA UK, .
- 90-10 Copper-Nickel for Resistance to Corrosion and Marine Biofouling, Publication No 118, , CDA UK, .
- Copper Alloys for Marine Environments, Carol Powell and Peter Webster, Publication 206, Second Revision, , CDA UK, .
- Copper-Nickel Alloys: Properties, Processing, Application, Booklet, German Copper Institute (DKI), English translation .
- Copper Nickel Alloys, Properties and Applications, TN 30, , Joint Publication of the Copper Development Association (UK) and the Nickel Development Institute, Joint Publication of the Copper Development Association (UK) and the Nickel Development Institute .
- High Strength Copper-Nickels, Tuck, C.D.S., , UK, Langley Alloys, .
- Low Temperature Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys, Application Data Sheet 104/5, CDA, .
- Mechanical Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys at Low Temperatures, Application Data Sheet 144/8 R, CDA, .