Economic and Operational Benefits
Experience with copper-nickel boat hulls has been well recorded. The unique combination of high resistance to corrosion and reduced macrofouling potentially leads to a lack of maintenance which can provide the following economic and operational benefits:
- Frictional drag on boat hulls is greatly reduced with copper-nickel versus hull materials that corrode and macrofoul.
- Reduced drag on copper-nickel boat hulls translates to faster boat speeds, less need for power and greater fuel conservation to maintain operating speeds compared to hulls that corrode or macrofoul.
- Reduced corrosion and macrofouling with copper-nickel results in much lower fuel costs, lower maintenance costs and less boat downtime than hull materials that corrode or macrofoul.
Hulls not made with copper-nickel must be maintained with corrosion-resistant and antifouling paints. Copper-nickel eliminates the need to paint boat hulls, although an occasional pressure wash may be required to keep the hull clean around the water line when moored for long periods.
Three different types of copper-nickel hulls have been fabricated: solid copper-nickel, copper-nickel clad steel and adhesive backed foil. They were constructed as copper-nickel alloy plate welded onto steel or copper-nickel frames, copper-nickel roll bonded onto steel plate and then connected to a steel frame, and cladding a fiberglass, wood or steel hull with adhesive-backed copper-nickel foil.
Evaluation Test Program
A 5-year evaluation test program of 90-10 Cu-Ni sheathing was conducted on ferries and test panels in New Zealand. The effects of seawater temperature, access to sunlight, seawater velocity, and avoidance of galvanic action was evaluated. Adhesive-backed copper-nickel foil sheathing was found to be suitable for both new and retrofit installations. Results of the test program are provided.
Experience with Specific Ships
- Aspects Of Biofouling And Corrosion On Ship Hulls Clad With Copper-Nickel, L.Boulton, C.A. Powell, WB Hudson, , Corrosion and Prevention-99, Sydney, .
- Asperida-Smooth Sailing, Nickel Magazine, Vol. 20, 2, pp 16, , .
- Behavior of CuNi10FelMn-Clad Ship Plates in Seawater, Drodten, P. and H. Pircher, Werkstoffe und Korrosion, Vol. 41, 2, pp 59-64, , .
- Biofouling Resistance of Cupronickel: Basics and Experience, W. Schleich and K. Steinkamp, , Stainless Steel World 2003 Conference, Maastricht, .
- CA 706 Copper Nickel Alloy Hulls: The Copper Mariners Experience and Economics, Manzolillo, J. L., E. W. Thiele, and A. H. Tuthill, Trans. Soc. Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Journal, pp 22, , .
- Controlling Biofouling on Ferry Hulls with Copper Nickel, Boulton, L. H., C. A. Powell, and W. B. Hudson, Additional Papers, pp 73-87, , 10th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling, University of Melbourne, DSTO General Document DSTO-GD-0287. Defence Science & Technology Organisation, Australia .
- Copper-Nickel Alloys for Seawater Corrosion Resistance and Antifouling - A State of the Art Review, C.A. Powell and H.T. Michels, , Corrosion 2000, NACE International, .
- Copper-Nickel Alloys for the Construction of Ship and Boat Hulls, Glover, T. J., British Corrosion Journal, Vol. 17, 4, pp 155-158, , .
- Copper-Nickel Boat Hulls: Performance and Corrosion, Carol Powell, Consultant to the Copper Development Association, , .
- Copper-Nickel Sheathing Study-Phase II. Two Year Service Performance of Test Panels on Arco Texas, Thiele, E. W., , US Dept. of Transportation Maritime Administration, Contract MA-81-SAC-10074 .
- Corrosion and Biofouling Protection of Ship Hulls Using Copper-Nickel, Powell, C. A, , International Conference on Marine Corrosion Prevention: A Re-Appraisal for the Next Decade, London, .
- Hull Experiments on 24-Knot RO/RO Vessels Directed Toward Fuel-Saving Applications of Copper-Nickel, Schorsch, E., R. T. BIicicchi, and Fu, J. W., , Annual Meeting, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Enginners, .
- Metal Boats, Roberts-Goodson, Bruce, , Capall Bann Publishing, (UK) and Heron House( USA and Canada), ISBN: 186163 031X, .
- Review of Copper-Nickel Alloy Sheathing of Ship Hulls and Offshore Structures, Peters, Dale T., , Copper Development Association Seminar Technical Report 7044-1919. The Application of Copper Nickel Alloys in Marine Systems .
- The Asperida, A Copper-Nickel Sailboat After More than Thirty Years in Seawater, Harold T. Michels and Kenneth P. Geremia, Paper Number 05238, , Corrosion/2005 Annual Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, NACE, .
- Use of Copper-Nickel Cladding on Ship and Boat Hulls, H. Pircher and B Ruhland and G. Sussek, CDA, UK, publication TN 36 and German DKI Publication No. s.176, , .