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- A6091: Ambient Temperature Ampacity Corrections for Cable Bundling and Direct Solar Exposure
- [727.17 Kb]
Heat is one of the enemies of electrical systems. This study discusses the effects of ambient temperature and electrical loading on bundled cable and of direct sunlight on conductors in conduits. The results carry great import in determining ampacity corrections required to meet the National Electrical Code®. When de-rating tables are not applied in practice, serious consequences can result. Reprint, IAEI News, September 2003
- A6119: Bigger Really Is Better
- [255 Kb]
"Inspectors and Contractors Prefer Larger Gages and More Circuits" A recent survey of electrical inspectors, contractors and instructors indicated an overwhelming preference for more circuits, larger gages than Code minimums, and copper conductors in their own homes.
- A6170: Copper or Aluminum: Connectability Counts
- [616 Kb]
A short article explaining the Powertech study of copper and aluminum wiring systems, and summarizing the results. In this study of connectability, copper systems clearly outperformed alternates.
- A6107: Corrosion and Current Burst Testing of Copper and Aluminum Power Connectors for Use with Copper and Aluminum Conductor
- [2 Mb]
Crimped and mechanically bolted aluminum and copper connectors are commonly used for terminating electric power cables. In this study, copper-to-copper, aluminum-to-copper, and aluminum-to-aluminum connections were subjected to accelerated aging. The all-copper connections performed best. This is the full report.
- A6123: Connecting With Copper Is Connecting With Trust
Colorful, six page summary of the results of the aluminum and copper connector study detailed below, with photographs and a description of the research and results.
- A6108: Comparative Corrosion and Current Burst Testing of Copper and Aluminum Electrical Power Connectors
- [1.4 Mb]
This IEEE Paper, presented at the 2005 Industry Applications Conference, reports on testing of aluminum and copper power connectors. The performance of copper and aluminum connectors was compared by conducting accelerated aging tests. The connectors were evaluated by comparing the change in resistance of the test samples as the test progressed. The results of these tests point to a high level of failure of the aluminum connectors.
- A6116: Outdoor Temperatures for Selected U.S. and Canadian Cities and Temperatures Inside Raceways on Rooftops Exposed to Direct Sunlight
- [671 Kb]
The data presented has been revised for the 2011 NEC and 2009 ASHRAE temperature data. The table provides the average summer 2% design temperatures for various U.S and Canadian cities, as well as the elevated ambient temperature inside rooftop raceway exposed to direct sunlight.
(16 pgs.) 1 free (add'l $0.25 ea)
- A6059: Do You Need An Electrician?
A questionnaire encouraging consumers to self-inspect their homes for telltale signs of electrical problems. Contains ten questions with explanations. Also contains a list of questions to ask an electrician or electrical contractor in order to assess their qualifications.
1 free (add'l $0.25 ea). Available free to installers in bulk quantities by calling 212-251-7200.
- A6142: Temperature Adjustment for Rooftop Conductors - DVD/Video
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) examined every possible rooftop wiring method to determine conductor temperatures as a result of exposure to direct sunlight at various heights above the roof. This DVD describes the methodology and findings of the experiments. The results can be used in determining ampacity corrections required to meet the National Electrical Code®.
1 free (add'l $2.00 ea)
- A6115: Rooftop Ampacity Adjustments
A pocket-sized slide tool designed to allow easy calculation of adjusted ampacities for conductors in raceway on rooftops exposed to direct sunlight, as required in the 2011 NEC. Can be used for ampacity adjustment in any environment, plus has temperature data for several dozen cities. A complement to booklet A6116.
1 free (add'l $0.25 ea)
- A6163: Connectability Testing of Copper and Aluminum Wiring
- [3.3 Mb]
A report by Powertech Labs of research they recently conducted into wiring systems showed a very high (up to 100%) failure rate for aluminum systems in mechanical connectors, irrespective of conductor preparation, conductive greases or torque levels when tested according to an IEC method. Copper conductors in copper connectors passed in every case.